A/B testing

It’s a process of comparing two variations of the same webpage or other digital medium to determine which design, content or functionality results in a higher conversion rate. By repeatedly testing improvements, it helps generate more revenue from the existing traffic and build a data-informed marketing strategy. Think of it as a way to test which small changes earn your business most money.


It’s an ERP designed to coordinate all the information needed to complete business processes such as order fulfilment, billing, human resource management, and production planning.

Affiliate marketing

It’s the process by which an affiliate earns a commission for marketing other companies’ products. When someone makes a purchase through the affiliate’s link, the affiliate earns a percentage of sale.


It’s an iterative approach to project management and software development that promotes continuous iteration of development and testing throughout the lifecycle of the project. By dividing workload into small but consumable increments, it helps deliver value faster with fewer headaches.


Short for Application Programming Interface, it’s a way to programmatically interact with a separate software component or resource. It is essentially a messenger that takes requests, translates, and returns responses. Unchained exposes all data exclusively through a GraphQL API (headless).

Apollo client

It’s a suite of tools to create a GraphQL server, and to consume a GraphQL API. Apollo, as a company, gives you multiple libraries to this that are suited to wherever you’re building your app: web, iOS, and Android. Apollo Client is about binding your data to your UI with GraphQL.


Back-end in software engineering refers to the server side of an application and everything that communicates between the database and the browser. Back-end development is primarily focused on how the site functions and data processing that takes place in the background. See Front-end.

B2B, B2C, C2C, C2B, B2A, C2A

Terms used to describe miscellaneous business models: B2B - Business-to-Business B2C - Business-to-Consumer C2C - Consumer-to-Consumer C2B - Consumer-to-Business B2A - Business-to-Administration C2A - Consumer-to-Administration

Bounce rate

It’s a digital marketing metric used in web traffic analytics measuring the percentage of website visitors that leave (“bounce”) rather than continuing to view other pages within the same site. It is calculated by dividing the number of single page visits by the total amount of visits and later represented as a percentage of total visits.

Brick-and-click store

It’s a business model in which sellers operate both an online shop (click) and a physical store (brick). In simple terms, the merchants offer their customers both an online and offline channel to do their shopping.


It’s the combination of products or services for sale as one combined product or service package.

Buyer persona

It’s a research-based profile characterisation of a target customer based on information about them and how they use your product or service. Buyer personas represent what prospective customers are thinking and doing as they make decisions.


Short for CTA, it’s a marketing term designed to prompt an immediate response (e.g. sale, filling a form) from the person stumbling upon it. In e-commerce, it usually refers to the use of words or phrases that can be incorporated in the product’s page.

Cart abandonment rate

It’s an e-commerce term used to describe a visitor who leaves the website after adding a product in the shopping cart before completing the transaction.

Click through rate

It’s a metric that measures the number of users who click on a specific link (views) in relation to the total number of users who view a page, email, or advertisement (impressions).


Short for content management system, it’s a software that allows users to build, manage, and modify content on a website without having to code it from scratch. There are three broad types of CMS software: open-source, proprietary and software-as-a-service, including cloud-based solutions.

Conversion rate

It’s the percentage of users who take a desired action out of the total number of visitors, for example, percentage of website visitors that make a purchase.

Conversion rate optimisation

It’s the process of increasing the percentage of visitors who perform a desired action on a website. Desired actions can include purchasing a product, signing up for a service, filling out a form, or clicking on a link.


It’s a sales technique aimed at generating higher profit by suggesting additional, related or complementary items to a customer who has already decided on making a purchase.


Short for Cascading Style Sheets, it’s a computer language used to lay out and structure HTML web pages. In contrast to HTML, which is used to structure a web document and elements such as headlines, paragraphs, embed images and other media, CSS determines the page layouts, colours, and fonts.


Short for comma-separated values, it’s tabular data that is saved in a plain text format separated by commas. It is a common export option in desktop applications and some websites. Most spreadsheet programs can import data from a .CSV file.

Customer acquisition cost

It’s the estimation of the total cost of acquiring a new customer. It usually includes total sales and marketing costs divided by the number of customers acquired.

Data centre

It’s a physical facility that businesses use to house their computer and storage systems including critical applications and data. Its key components include routers, switches, firewalls, storage systems, servers, and application-delivery controllers.

Decentralised system

It’s an interconnected information system where no single entity is the sole authority. Instead, there are multiple central owners usually in form of network computers, each of which stores a copy of the resources users can access.

Distributed ledger

It’s a database that is consensually shared and synchronised across multiple sites, institutions, or geographies, accessible by multiple people. It allows transactions to have public "witnesses". The participant at each node of the network can access the recordings shared across that network and can own an identical copy of it. Any changes or additions made to the ledger are reflected and copied to all participants in a matter of seconds or minutes.

Docker swarm

It’s a group of virtual machines that are running the Docker application and that have been configured to join together in a cluster. The activities of the cluster are controlled by a swarm manager, and machines that have joined the cluster are referred to as nodes.


It’s a streamlined form of retail business wherein the store accepts customer orders but does not keep the products it sells in stock. Instead, it forwards the orders and their shipment details to the third party, which ships them directly to the customer.

Engagement rate

It’s a metric that measures the level of involvement/interaction that a piece of content received from an audience. Factors that influence engagement include users’ comments, shares, likes, and more.


Short for Enterprise Resource Planning, it’s a system of integrated software applications used to manage and integrate the functions of all the core business processes such as finance, human resources, supply chain, and others. Think of it as a software that maintains a database of all the key information improving enterprise efficiency and effectiveness. See: Abacus, Legacy ERP, Microsoft Nav (Navision), and SAP ERP R/3.


Front-end in software engineering refers to everything with which the user interacts. It includes the interface design and the programming that makes it function.

See back-end (hyperlink).

Google Ads and Analytics

Google Ads is an online platform, where businesses bid to display brief advertisements, service offerings, product listings, or videos to web users. The ads are placed in the results of search engines, websites, mobile applications, and videos. Services are offered under a pay-per-click pricing model. Google Analytics is a web analytics service that tracks and reports website traffic. It offers detailed insights into how people engage with websites.


It’s a query language for your API, and a server-side runtime for executing queries by using a type system you define for your data. GraphQL isn't tied to any specific database or storage engine and is instead backed by your existing code and data.

Headless commerce

It’s a separation of the front-end and back-end of an e-commerce application. This architecture offers brands freedom of expression to build whatever and however they want. Most importantly, it enables online businesses to improve the customer experience.

Inbound marketing

It’s the process of helping attract potential customers by creating valuable content, performing social media marketing, and improving search engine optimisation.

Internet of things (IoT)

It’s the network of interrelated, internet-connected physical objects that can collect, transfer, and exchange data with other devices and systems over the internet.


It’s a computer programming language that allows to create interactive effects and complex features within web browsers.

Landing page

It’s a single page on your website to grab potential customer’s attention when they click through from a marketing email, promotion, online advertisement, or search engine optimised search result.

Legacy ERP

It’s an older enterprise software solution that is no longer being enhanced.


It’s an open-source framework of Javascript that facilitates the application design in a very short period of time.

Microsoft Dynamics NAV (Navision)

It’s an ERP designed to automate and connect sales, purchasing, operations, accounting, and stock management. It covers all business processes from finance and purchasing to warehouse management and general reporting.

Mobile commerce

It’s a term used to describe shopping through a mobile device such as a smartphone or a tablet.


It’s a document-oriented NoSQL database used for high volume data storage. Instead of using tables and rows as in the traditional relational databases, MongoDB makes use of collections and documents.

Multi-channel e-commerce

It’s the practice of listing your products on more than one place online (online sales platforms, marketplaces, mobile applications, etc.).


It’s a JavaScript framework that enables building server-side rendering and static web applications using React.

Open source

It’s a software for which the original source code is made freely available for use or modification.

Page rank

It’s a value assigned to a web page as a measure of its popularity or importance, used to determine the order in which Google Search results are presented.

Pay per click (PPC)

It’s an online marketing model in which advertisers pay each time a user clicks on one of their online ads.

Payment gateway

It’s a technology used by businesses to authorise credit card or direct payments processing from customers.


Short for Product Information Management, it’s a software solution providing a set of processes used to evaluate, identify, store, manage and distribute product data, content, and other information to market and sell products.

Reverse Proxy

It’s a type of proxy server that is accessible from the public network. It accepts a request from a client, forwards it to a server that can fulfil it, and returns the server’s response to the client.


It’s an ERP designed to coordinate all the information needed to complete business processes such as order fulfilment, billing, human resource management, and production planning.


Short for Search Engine Optimization, it’s a method used to place the website at the top of the search engine's results by businesses and individuals looking to maximise its visibility.


It’s a software for SMEs, startups, and freelancers.


Short for software as a service, it’s a way of hosting applications over the internet by a third-party provider and making them available to customers as a service.

SSL Certificate

Short for Secure Sockets Layer, it’s a global standard security technology enabling encrypted communication between a web browser and a web server ensuring it remains private.


It’s the world's most popular open-source cloud-native application networking stack, helping developers build, deploy and run microservices quickly and easily.

User Experience (UX)

It’s the overall experience and process that occurs for users as a consequence of them interacting with a product in a given context.

User Interface (UI)

It’s the interaction between a person and a computer, what the user sees when they interact with the software. A good UI allows to interact in an easy and intuitive way requiring minimum effort on the user’s part to achieve maximum desired outcome.

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